How to grow and cultivate elderberries?

Elderflower, also known as elderflower (Western elderberry), is a deciduous tree of the genus Elderberry, which is native to Europe and North Africa. It grows naturally in Europe, North Africa and Southwest Asia. It is a shrub to medium-high tree that grows to a height of 3 to 10 m, and its cute appearance and fragrant flowers are a big attraction. In addition, leaves and flowers can be used as herbs. In horticulture, it is often treated as an herb. This time, I will introduce how to grow elderflowers.

Elderflowers are relatively resistant to heat and cold, but are vulnerable to high humidity and stuffiness. In US climate, I am not particularly good at hot and humid summers. Therefore, when planting elderflowers in the ground, it is recommended to choose a place that is well-ventilated and shaded from the afternoon.

  • Features of elderflower

Elderflowers bloom white flowers from May to June. The flowers bloom at the tips of the branches and are about 3-4 mm in size. The leaves are egg-shaped and the edges are jagged. It is tall and can grow up to 10m.

Elderflowers produce black fruits from July to September. Elderflower flowers have a muscat-like scent, and the fruits harvested in the fall can be used to make jams. The leaves, branches and roots are also used as herbs because they are effective as medicines.

  • Elderflower cultivation environment
  • Sunlight / storage location

Plant elderflowers in a sunny and well-ventilated area. It is possible to grow it in pots, but it grows quickly, so it is more suitable for local planting.

  • Soil

Elderflowers grow in most places because they are of any soil type. We prefer a well-drained environment and weakly alkaline soils, so squeeze humus and compost before planting.

  • Points on how to grow elderflowers
  • Watering

Ground-planted elderflowers do not require watering after rooting.

Water the potted elderflowers well enough to allow water to flow from the bottom of the pot when the soil surface dries.

  • Fertilizer

Fertilize before the rainy season after the flowers have finished blooming from May to June, and from September to October after the fruits have grown.

  • Pests

Elderflowers are a type of plant that is resistant to pests and are easy to grow, but it is important to manage them in a cool environment during the summer.

In addition, pests can be prevented by plowing in the branches that are crowded during the defoliation period.

  • Detailed method of growing elderflower
  • How to choose

Most of the elderflower seedlings on the market are about 20 cm tall. Choose seedlings that have solid roots and lower leaves and good branching.

  • Planting

Spring planting of elderflowers takes place from March to May, and autumn from September to October. When planting in the garden, plant in a sunny and well-ventilated place.

  • Pruning / cutting back

Pruning is done between November and February after the elderflower leaves have fallen in the fall. Since it grows quickly, we will take the plunge to cut off the elongated branches and newly created thin branches, and prun the trunk so that it is well ventilated by the sunlight.

  • Flower

Elderflower flowers are white flowers that bloom from May to June.

  • Harvest

You can enjoy making tea and syrup for flowers from May to June, and jam and syrup for black fruits that grow from July to September.

Please be careful not to eat elderflower seeds as they are toxic.

  • Over the summer

Elderflower is a plant that is strong against heat but weak against stuffiness, so prun the branches that were crowded during the defoliation period to make them airy.

  • Over the winter

There is no need for a special winter season.

  • How to increase (separation, cuttings, leaf cuttings, etc.)

There are two ways to increase elderflower: seedlings and cuttings.

When growing with seeds, use the fruits picked in the fall. The seeds are sown from March to May in spring and from September to October in autumn. Remove the seeds from the flesh of the picked fruits by washing them with water and let them dry. Prepare a sowing box containing small red balls and sow seeds in it at intervals of about 5 cm. It will become a big tree in about two years.

If you want to grow elderflowers with cuttings, you can do it in spring and autumn, just like sowing. Find a newly grown branch from the elderflower tree and cut it about 10 to 15 cm from the tip. For the cut branches, cut the cut diagonally, soak it in a solution such as a plant growth regulator for about 30 minutes, leave an interval of about 10 cm, and stab it into a box for cuttings containing small red balls.

  • Elderberries syrup

Elderflower can make syrup. For the syrup, prepare about 20 tufts of elderflower flowers, 3 lemons, 700CC of water, and 600g of sugar (preferably granulated sugar).

First, put sugar and water in a pan and heat it to dissolve the sugar. Next, wash the elderflower flowers thoroughly with water and separate the stems and petals of the flowers. Wash the skin of the lemon and cut it into slices. Lemon may be added separately in the skin and juice. Put the lemon and the elderflower on the petals in a pot with sugar dissolved in it. After mixing well, put it in a sealed container and wait for 4 to 5 days, filter out the petals of elderflower, etc., and store it in the refrigerator. It can be stored for about a month. This elderflower syrup is versatile and can also be used as a syrup for cakes.

RESOURSES

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/elderberry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sambucus
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/?term=elderberry
 

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